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Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. In Tolkien's mythos, it was the Elvish language most commonly spoken in Middle-earth in the Third Age. It was the language of the Sindar, those Teleri which had been left behind on the Great Journey of the Elves. It was derived from an earlier language called Common Telerin. When the Ñoldor came back to Middle-earth, they adopted the Sindarin language, although they believed their native Quenya more beautiful. Before the downfall, most of the Men of Númenor also spoke the language. Knowledge of it was kept in the Númenórean realm in exile Gondor, especially amongst the learned. Sindarin is the language referred to as the Elven-tongue in The Lord of the Rings.

Tolkien originally imagined that the language which would become Sindarin was spoken by the Ñoldor (second clan of Elves). However, Tolkien later decided that it was the language of the Sindar. For this reason it is called Noldorin in the older material, such as the Etymologies. When Noldorin became Sindarin, it also adopted some features of the originally unrelated language Ilkorin. Tolkien based the sound and some of the grammar of his Noldorin/Sindarin on Welsh, and Sindarin displays of the consonant mutations that characterise the Celtic (especially Brythonic) languages. The language was also probably influenced to an extent by the Germanic languages, as Tolkien was a scholar of both Old English and Old Norse.

The written script alphabet of the Elven languages is typically Tengwar, although Cirth can also be used.

GrammarEdit

Sindarin is mainly analytic, though traits of its highly inflected progenitor can still be seen.

PhonologyEdit

Sindarin was designed to have a Welsh-like phonology. It has most of the same sounds and similar phonotactics.

Letter IPA Notes
a ɑ
b b
c k
ch x
d d
dh ð
e ɛ
f f, v Represents [v] when final or before n, [f] everywhere else.
g g
h h
hw ʍ
i j, i Represents [j] when initial, [i] everywhere else.
l l
lh
m m
n n
ng ŋ, ŋg Represents [ŋ] when final, [ŋg] everywhere else.
o ɒ
ǫ ɔ Only occurs as a long vowel in old Mithrim dialect.
œ œ In more modern Sindarin replaced by e.
p p
ph f, ff Represents [f] when final, [ff] everywhere else.
r r
rh
s s
t t
th θ
u u
v v
w w
y y Pronounced like German ü

An accent signifies a long vowel (á, é, etc). In a monosyllabic word, a circumflex is used (â, ê, etc). However, for practical reasons, users of the ISO Latin-1 character set often substitute ý for ŷ.


Diphthongs are ai (pronounced like aisle), ei (day), ui (too young), oi (boy), and au (cow). If the last diphthong finishes a word, it is spelt aw. There are also diphthongs ae and oe with no English counterparts; Tolkien recommended to substitute ai and oi respectively if one does not care about details. If one does care, it is similar to pronouncing a or o respectively in the same syllable as one pronounces an e (as in pet).

In archaic Sindarin, there was a vowel similar to German ö (IPA: [œ]), which Tolkien mostly transcribed as œ (usually not as oe as is often found in publications like the Silmarillion, cf. Nirnaeth Arnoediad [read: Nírnaeth Arnœdiad], Goelydh [read: Gœlydh]). This vowel later came to be pronounced ɛ and is therefore transcribed as such [sc. Gelydh].

Archaic Sindarin also had a spirant m or nasal v (IPA: [ɱ]), which was transcribed as mh (though always pronounced [v] in later Sindarin).

NounsEdit

PluralizationEdit

Sindarin plurals are characterised by i-affection, or umlaut. The Sindarin term for this is prestanneth (disturbance, affection). Almost all Sindarin words form their plurals like English man/men and goose/geese — by changing the vowels in the word. The plural patterns are:

  • In non-final syllables:
    • a > e — galadh > gelaidh
    • e > e — bereth > berith
    • i > i — dineth > dinith
    • o > e — gowest > gewist
    • u > y — tulus > tylys
    • y > y — (no example available)
  • In final syllables:
    • a > ai — anar > enair
    • â > ai — tâl > tail
    • e > i — adaneth > edenith
    • ê > î — hên > hîn
    • i > i — brennil > brennil
    • î > î — dîs > dîs
    • o > y — brannon > brennyn
    • ó > ý — bór > býr
    • ô > ŷ — thôn > thŷn
    • u > y — urug > yryg
    • û > ui — hû > hui
    • y > y — ylf > ylf
    • ý > ý — mýl > mýl
    • au > oe — naug > noeg

The reason for this kind of plural formation is that the primitive plural ending (still present in Quenya as -i) affected the vowels in the word by making them higher and fronter. After this sound change occurred, the suffix disappeared when all final vowels were lost.

Besides there are also various irregular plural formations, like changing î to ai or vice versa (thus ai to î or even to ý) or adding suffix -in (though in most but not all cases there only appears to be this ending, where in fact the singular has lost the original ending while the plural has not, cf. old *elen, pl. *eleni becoming *ele, pl. elin, later êl, pl. elin). In a few cases the basic word is in the plural and a singular form is created by adding a suffix (cf. filigod, pl. filig, though later an analogous yet etymologically wrong singular fileg was created).

Class PluralEdit

Sindarin also has several suffixes which denote a so-called class plural. For example, -ath indicates a group of something, e. g. elenath from elen (an archaic form of êl), meaning star and -ath. It means a group of stars or all the stars in the sky. Another ending, -rim, is used to indicate a race, e. g. nogothrim from nogothdwarf and -rim, meaning the race of dwarves. The ending -hoth is generally used in an unfriendly sense, e. g. gaurhoth from gaurwerewolf and -hoth, meaning werewolf-host.

MutationEdit

Sindarin has a complex series of mutations. There are three main different types of mutations: soft mutation (or lenition), nasal mutation and stop (occlusive) mutation. Additionaly, after certain particles or prepositions we can observe changes often referred to as mixed mutation (in fact basically lenition, but many consonants that are subject to normal soft mutation are not changed here). Finally, it is presumed that Sindarin also once had what we could call an archaic spirantal mutation (also sometimes called liquid mutation by scholars). It is still uncertain whether this mutation is still productive or if it only occurs in ancient constructs.

Initial mutations must not be confused with assimilations that may occur in compound words (such as, for instance, in the names Araphor, Arassuil and Caradhras).

The following table outlines how different consonants are affected by the different mutations.

Basic Soft (i) Nasal (in) Mixed (en) Mixed (an) Stop (ed) Liquid (or) H-mutation (oh) DH-mutation (adh)
b i v i m e-b am b e b or v o b a b
c i g i ch e-g an g e ch or ch o ch a ch
d i dh i n e-d an d e d or dh o d a d
dr i dhr in dr en-dr an dr e dr or dhr o dr a dr
f i f i f e-f an f eph f or f o f a f
g i '* i ng e-g an g e g or ' o g a g
gl i 'l in gl en-gl an gl e gl or 'l o gl a gl
gr i 'r in gr en-gr an gr e gr or 'r o gr a gr
gw i 'w in gw en-gw an gw e gw or 'w o gw a gw
h i ch i ch e-h an h e ch or ch o ch a h
hw i chw i 'w e-'w an 'w e 'w or 'w o chw ath w
l i l i l e-l an l ed l or l o lh ad l
lh i thl ith l e-'l an 'l e thl or 'l o lh ath l
m i v i m e-m am m e m or v o m a m
n i n i n en-n an n e n or n o n a n
p i b i ph e-b am b e ph or ph o ph a ph
r i r idh r edh-r adh r ed r or r o rh adh r
**r i r in r en-r an r ed r or r o rh ath r
rh i thr i thr e-'r an 'r e thr or 'r o rh ath r
s i h i s e-h an h es s or s o s a s
t i d i th e-d an d e th or th o th a th
tr i dr i thr en-dr an dr e thr or thr o thr a thr
th i th i th e-th an th eth th or th o th a th

*Here the apostrophe indicates elision. **Doriathrin-Sindarin mutation

Take, for example, the deictic article i, which triggers soft mutation. When added to a word like tâl, it becomes i dâl. In Sindarin's phonological history, t became d in the middle of a word. Because i tâl at the time was considered one word, the t became d, and thus i dâl. However, without the article the word is still tâl.

Words beginning in b-, d-, or g- which descend from older mb-, nd-, or ng- are affected differently by the mutations:

Basic Soft (i) Nasal (in) Mixed (en) Mixed (an) Stop (ed) Liquid (or) H-mutation (oh) DH-mutation (adh)
(m)b i m i mb e-mb am mb e mb or b o b a b
(n)d i n i nd e-nd an nd e nd or d o d a d
(n)g i ng*** i ng e-ng an ng e ng or g o g a g

*** Note that it is not clear whether ng represents the mere nasal or the nasal followed by g. Furthermore the nasal, mixed and stop mutation should very likely also yield nasal + stop (cf. d and b), but it is not known with certainty, how this is to be transcribed (and very likely there is nothing like the correct transcription, since Tolkien always was somewhat uncertain concerning this aspect). So the nasally mutated form in Gœlydh is most likely to be pronounced ing Gœlydh and might be transcribed as i Ngœlydh, i-Ngœlydh or even i nGœlydh, i-nGœlydh.

Mutation is triggered in various ways:

  • Soft mutation, the most widely occurring mutation, is triggered by the singular article i, the prefixes athra-, ath-, go-, gwa-, ú-, and u-, as well as the prepositions ab, am, adel, be, dad, di, na, nu, and î, and after avo. It also often affects the second element in a compound, an adjective following a noun, and the object of a verb.
  • Nasal mutation is triggered by the plural article in, and the prepositions an, dan, and plural 'nin.
  • Mixed mutation is triggered by the genitive article en (which loses the -n), and the prepositions ben, erin, nan, 'nin, and uin.
  • Stop mutation is triggered by the prepositions ed, ned, and o(d).
  • Liquid mutation is presumably triggered by the preposition or and conjunction ar when prefixed in fixed idioms.

PronounsEdit

Pronouns are perhaps the most poorly attested feature of Sindarin. What has been reconstructed by the comparative method is largely conjectural and is not agreed upon, and therefore will not be addressed in this article.

Sindarin pronouns, like those in English, still maintain some case distinction. Sindarin pronouns have nominative, accusative, genitive, and dative forms.

First Person Second Person Third Person
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative im e
Accusative nin men den hain
Genitive mín lín dîn, în (refl.)
Dative anim, enni ammen le
Enclitic -n -m -r

The ending -ch also occurs in our corpus, but as with Noldorin pronouns ho, hon, hono, pl. huin (male), he, hen, hene, pl. hîn (female) and ha, hana, pl. hein (neuter) and various reconstructed forms there are still many discussions as to the actual meaning (it also occurs in a yet unpublished list next to -g, both being marked as second person, but there is also a good chance of it being the ending for 1.pl. inclusive, as opposed to -m for 1.pl. exclusive). Furthermore some hold the particle di, occuring in the Sindarin Pater Noster to represent the 3.pl. nominative (cf. den, dîn).

VerbsEdit

Sindarin verbs are also quite complex. The number of attested verbs in Sindarin is small, so the Sindarin verb system is imperfectly known; no verb has a full paradigm of forms available. There are two main types of verbs: basic and derived. Basic verbs have stems which end in a consonant, and derived verbs have stems which incorporate some sort derivational morpheme (such as a causative ending) which ends in -a.

Basic VerbsEdit

Basic verbs, though smaller in number than derived verbs, have a very complex conjugation which arises from Sindarin's phonological history.

Basic verbs form the infinitve by adding -i: giri from gir-. This ending causes an a or o in the stem to umlaut to e: blebi from blab-. Sindarin does not use infinitive forms very often, and rather uses the gerund to achieve the same meaning.

For all persons except the third person singular, the present tense is formed by the insertion of -i, and the proper enclitic pronomial ending: girin, girim, girir. As with the infinitive, -i causes an a or o in the stem to umlaut to e: pedin, pedim, pedir, from pad-. The third person singular, because it has a zero-ending, does not require the insertion of -i. This leaves the bare stem, which, because of Sindarin's phonological history, causes the vowel of the stem to become long: gîr, blâb, pâd.


The past tense of basic verbs is very complicated and poorly attested. One common reconstructed system is to use -n: darn. However, the only time this -n actually remains is after a stem in -r. After a stem ending in -l, -n becomes -ll: toll. After -b, -d, -g, -v, or -dh, it is metathesized and then assimilated to the same place of articulation as the consonant it now follows. The consonant then experiences what could be called a "backwards mutation": -b, -d, and -g become -p, -b, and -c, and -v and -dh become -m and -d. The matter is complicated even further when pronomial endings are added. Because -mp, -mb, -nt, -nd, and -nc did not survive medially, they become -mm-, -mm-, -nn-, -nn-, and -ng. In addition, past tense stems in -m would have -mm- before any pronomial endings. Because this all may seem rather overwhelming, look at these examples which show step-by-step transformations:

  • cab- > **cabn > **canb > **camb > camp, becoming camm- with any pronomial endings.
  • ped- > **pedn > **pend > pent, becoming penn- with any pronomial endings.
  • dag- > **dagn > **dang (n pronounced as in men) > **dang (n pronounced as in sing) > danc, becoming dang- with any pronomial endings.
  • lav- > **lavn > **lanv > **lanm > **lamm > lam, becoming lamm- before any pronomial endings.
  • redh- > **redhn > **rendh > **rend > rend, becoming renn- before any pronomial endings.

The future tense is formed by the addition of -tha. An -i is also inserted between the stem and -tha, which again causes a and o to umlaut to e. Endings for all persons except for the first person singular can be added without any further modification: giritham, blebithar. The first person singular ending -n causes the -a in -tha to become -o: girithon, blebithon, pedithon.

The imperative is formed with the addition of -o to the stem: giro!, pado!, blabo!.

Derived VerbsEdit

Derived verbs have a much less complex conjugation because they have a thematic vowel (usually a) which reduces the number of consonant combinations which occur.

The infinitive is formed with -o, which replaces the -a of the stem, e. g. lacho from lacha-.

The present tense is formed without modification to the stem. Pronomial endings are added without any change.

The past tense is formed with the ending -nt, which becomes -nne with any pronomial endings, e. g. erthant, erthanner.

The future tense is formed with -tha. With the addition of the first person singular -n, this becomes -tho.

The imperative is formed like the infinitive.

Elvish to english Edit

a: and acharn: south (to the)

ad: again, back, re-

adab, edeb: building, house

adan, edain: man (of the race of Men)

adaneth: mortal woman

adar, edeir: father, pet-name ada

adel: behind, in rear of

aderthad: reunion

aduial: evening twilight

ae: if

aear: inland sea

aearon: ocean

aeg: thorn

aeglos: a plant that grew on Amon Rûdh, also the lance of Gil-galad (literally 'snowthorn'); icicle

aelin: lake, pool

aes: cooked food, meat

aew, aewen: bird

aglar: glory, brilliance

aglareb: glorious

agor: narrow

aimenel: lark

aith: spear-point

al: no, not

alag: rushing, impetuous

alagos: storm of wind, gale

alfirin: a small white flower, also called uilos and simbelmynë

alph, elph: swan

am: up

amar: the world

amarth: doom

amben: uphill

amdír: hope born of experience

amlug: winged dragon

amon, emyn: hill

anc: jaw, row of teeth

andelu: dangerous, fell

Anfang, Enfyng: Long-beard (a tribe of Dwarves)

angweth: chain, 'iron-bound'

anrand: one Cycle (100 valinorean years)

ang, eng: iron

angol: deep lore, magic (archaic); stench

angren, engryn; of iron

Angrenost: Sindarin name of Isengard

annabon: elephant

annon, ennyn: gate, door

annûn: sunset, west

Anor: the sun

ant: gift

anw: male (for animals)

anwar: awe

ar-: beside, outside

ar-: without, privative sense

ara-: noble, high. kingly

arad: daytime, a day

aran, erain: king

aras, erais: stag, deer

ardh: realm

arnoediad: without reckoning

ast: dust

atland: sloping, tilted

atlant: oblique, slanting

ath-: on both sides, across

athelas: kingsfoil

athor, ethir: spy

athrad, ethraid: ford, river-crossing

aur: day, morning

auth: war, battle

awarth: abandonment

bach: article, ware, thing

bachor: pedlar

badhron: judge

Balan, Belain: Power, God

balch: cruel

balchoth: barbarians (orcs)

balrog: demon of might

banc: trade

bang: tyrannous, cruel, oppressive

bant: full

band: prison, duress

bar, ber: dwelling

bara: fiery, eager

barad: doomed

barad, beraid: tower, fortress

baraha: hot, burning

baran: golden-brown

basgorn: loaf, 'round-bread'

bast: bread

bata: beaten track, pathway

baudh: judgement

bauglir: tyrant, oppressor

baul: torment

baur: need

be: as

bein: beautiful

belda: strong

beleg: mighty

bellas: bodily strength

belle: strength

belt: strong in body

ben: without

bennas: angle

beren: bold

bereth: valour

beriad: protection

besteth: wedding

besu: married couple

beth: words

bo: on

boe: must (generally before a verb, and sign of obligation)

boron: steadfast, trusty, faithful

both: puddle, small pool

branda: lofty, noble, fine

brasse: white heat

brassen: white-hot

breged: violence, suddenness

bregedur: wild-fire

bregol: violent, sudden

bregolas: fierceness

brethil: silver birch

brith: gravel

brithon: pebbly

brôg: a bear

bruin: loud, noisy

brûn: old

bund: snout, nose, cape

cabed: the leap

cabor: frog

cadwar: shapely

cael: lying in bed, sickness

caeleb: bedridden, sick

caew: lair, resting-place

calf: water-vessel

callon: hero

cam, cem: hand (especially cupped or in the attitude of receiving)

cant: shape

car: house

caran: red

caras: a moated fortress

carch: fang

carth: deed, feat

caun: void, empty

caw: top

ceber, cebir: stake

cef, ceif: soil

celeb: silver

celebrin: like silver, in hue or worth

celeg: agile

celeir: brilliant

celon: river

celw: spring, source of water

cennan: potter

cerch: sickle

Cerch iMBelain: 'Sickle of the Valar', Great Bear

cevn: of earth, earthen

chae: the earth

char, chair: ship

chathol: blade

chên, chin: child

chíl: heir

chwest: puff, breath, breeze

chwîn: faintness, giddiness

chwiniol: whirling, giddy, fantastic

cîl: cleft, pass between hills, gorge

cilith: choice

cirar: too late

cirban: haven

cirdan: shipwright

cirith: a pass (in the mountains)

Cirth: the Runes

claur: (poetical) glory

coe: earth

corch: crow

corn: cupola, dome

coron, cerin: mound

corw: cunning, wily

cost: quarrel

coth: enmity, enemy

craban, crebain: raven

crann: ruddy (of face)

cram: cake of compressed flour or meal (often containing milk and honey) used on long journeys

criss: cleft, cut

crist: cleaver, sword

crom: left (as opposed to right)

crum: left hand

crumui: left-handed

crun: wile, guile

cú: arch, crescent

cugu: dove

cuil: life

cuin: alive

cumb: mound, heap

cún: bent, bowed, bow-shaped

cunn: prince

cúran: crescent moon

curunir: wizard

dad: down

dadben: downhill

dae: shadow

daedelu: canopy

daen: corpse

daer: bridegroom

dâf: permission

dagnir; bane, killer

dagor, dagyr: battle

dair: shadow of trees

dal, dail: foot

dalma: palm of hand

dalraph: stirrup

dam: hammer

dan, dain: smith, maker

dân: back (not noun), again, against

dangen, dengin: the slain, the fallen (often plural)

dannen: fallen

danwedh: ransom

dath: hole, pit

daug: orc warrior

daw: night-time, gloom

del: horror

deleb: loathsome

deloth: abhorrence, disgust

delw: deadly, hateful, fell

dess: young woman

dî: woman, female

dîl: stopper, stopping, stuffing

dim: stair

dín: opening, gap, mountain pass

dínen: silent

dîr: man, male

dirnen: guarded

dirnaith: a wedge-shaped battle-formation used by the Dúnedain

dôl: head

dolen: hidden, secret

doll: obscure, dark, dusky

dollen: late, time (like german spät)

dolt: round, knob, boss

donn: swarthy

dor: land; clan

doron, deren: oak-tree

drafu: hewn log

dram: heavy stroke, blow

drambor: clenched fist, punch, blow

draug: wolf

dring: hammer

drúadan, Drúedain: Wildman of Halifirien

dúath: shadow

dú: nightfall, late evening

dúlin: nightingale

dulu: support

duin: (long) river

dún: west

Dúnadan, Dúnedain: man of the West, Númenorean

dûr: dark, sombre

dûath: night-shade

ech: spear

echad: camp

echui: awakening

eden: new, begun again

edinar: anniversary day

edhel, edhil: elf

eide: a rest

eilian: rainbow

eithel: well (of water)

eket: a short broad-bladed sword

elanor: a golden flower that grew on Cerin Amroth in Lothlórien (literally 'the sun-star')

elleth: elf-maid

ellint: faster

elw: blue

emer: sheep

emlin: yellow-hammer bird

endo: grandchild, descendant

endor: middle-earth

enedh: middle, center, core

ennas: there; where

ennin: Valian year

ephel: outer fence

er: one, alone

erch: a prickle

ereb: isolated

eredh: seed, germ

ereg, erig: holly-tree

eriol: alone, single; only

ernil: prince

eru: desert, waste

eryn: wood, forest (always plural)

esgal: screen, hiding, veil

estel: hope; trust

ethir: outflow, delta (of a river)

faer: spirit, soul

falas: shore, line of surf, beach

falf: foam, breaker

falma, falmar: wave

fang: beard

far: sufficient, enough, quite

faroth: hunter

farn: enough

fast: shaggy hair

faug: thirsty

faun: cloud

fein: white

feir, fîr: mortals

fela, fili: cave

fend: threshhold

fêr: mast

fern, firn: dead (of mortals)

fileg, filig: small bird

fin: hair

findel: tress, braid of hair

firen: human

foeg: mean, poor, bad

foen: radiant, white

forn: north (sometimes forod, or for)

fuin: dead of night

gador: prison, dungeon

gael: pale, glittering

gaer: dreadful

gaia: dread

gail: fence, palissade (particularly fortified)

galad: the light

galadh, gelaidh: tree

galas: growth, plant

galen: green

galenas: pipe-weed

galvorn: a black iron (possibly meteoritic) devised by Eôl the Dark Elf, with which he made the sword Gurthang

galw: bliss, good fortune

gamp: hook, claw

gand: device, contrivance, machine

gandel: harp

garaf: wolf

garn: property

gas: hole, gap

gasdil: stop-gap

Gast: the Void

gath: cavern

gathrod: cave

gaul: wolfhowl

gaur: werewolf

gawad: howling

gell: joy, triumph

gellan: jubilation

gellui: triumphant

gemb: sickly

gern: worn, old (of things)

gil, geil (collective plural giliath): star

gildin: silver spark

girith: shuddering

glaer: long lay, narrative poem

glaew: salve

glamb: shouting, confused noise

glamor: echo

glamren: echoing

glan: border, boundary

glas: joy

glaur: gold

glî: honey

glín: gleam (particularly of the eyes)

glind: pale blue

glinn: song, air, tune

glîr: song, poem, lay

glúdh: soap

go: with, together

go-: son of (like Scottish mac-)

gobel: a walled town or village

gobennas: history

gobennathren: historical

goer: red, copper-coloured, ruddy

golf: branch

goll: wise

gollor: magician

golodh, gelydh (or golodhrim): Noldo

golw: lore (archaic)

golwen: wise, learned in deep arts

gonathras: entanglement

gond; stone

gor: horror, dread (also goroth)

gorgoroth: deadly fear

gorn: impetuous

gorneh: impetus, vigour

goron: valour

gost: terror, dread

gowest: contract, compact, treaty

grond: mace

groth: delving, underground dwelling

gûl: sorcery (also gûldur)

guil: grace

guin: with

gûr: Death

gurth: death

guru: skill

gwador, gwedeir: brother, associate

gwaedh: bond, troth, compact, oath

gwaew: wind

gwaith: people

gwaloth: blossom, collection of flowers

gwanath: death, act of dying

gwann: departed, dead

gwanod: tale, number

gwanun: sister, kinswoman

gwanur: brother, kinsman

gwarth: betrayer

gwass: stain

gwastar: hummock

gwath: shade

gwathel, gwethil: sister, associate

gwaun, guin: goose

gwaur: soiled, dirty

gwein, gwîn: evening

gwelw: air (substance)

gwelwen: lower air (realm of birds)

gwend: bond, friendship

gweneth: virginity

gwenn: maiden

gwest: oath

gwî: net, web

gwilith: the lower air

gwilwileth: butterfly

gwind: blue-grey, pale blue, grey

gwing: spindrift, flying spray

habad, hebeid: shore

had, haid: position, place, spot

hador: thrower (of spears or darts)

hae: away from

haew: custom, habit

haglath: sling (for throwing stones)

haldir: 'hidden hero' (sindarin name)

half: seashell

hall: exalted, high

hammad: clothing

hamp: garment

hand: intelligent

hannas: intelligence, understanding

harad: south

haradren: southern

hargan: left-handed

harw: wound

hast: axe-blow

hathel: broadbladed sword, axe-blade

haudh: mound (especially burial mound), barrow

haust: bed

hé: this

heir: left (hand)

helch: bitter cold

hele: small fish

heledh: glass

heledir: king-fisher,'fish-watcher'

heleg: ice

heleth: a fur, fur-coat, etc

helf: fur

hell: frost

hên, hîn: eye

henneth: window

heren: order (as in club, association)

herth: household, troop under command of a hîr

hervenn: husband

herves: wife

hethw: foggy, obscure, vague

hîm: cool

him: steadfast, abiding (continually)

hin: these

hir: river

hír, hirrim: lord

híril: lady

hith: mist

hithlain: ‘mist-thread’, rope from Lothlórien

hiw: sticky, viscous

hobas: small land-locked bay, harbour, haven

horn: driven under compulsion, impelled

host: one gross (144)

hoth: host, horde (always in a bad sense)

hû: hound

hûd: assembly

hûl: battle-cry

hûn: heart (organ)

huor: courage, 'heart-vigour'

huorn: a tree that has become entish

hûr: readiness for action, vigour, fiery spirit

hwand: sponge, fungus

iâ: void, abyss, gulf, chasm

iaeth; neck

iaew: mocking, scorn

iant: bridge; yoke

ianw: bridge

iâr: blood

iâth: fence

iau: corn

iaun: holy place, fane, sanctuary

iaur: ancient

idher: thoughtfulness

idhren: pondering, wise, thoughtful

idhrin: sun-year

iell: daughter

iest: wish

ifant: 'year-full', old (but with no connotation of weakness)

imlad: a narrow valley with deep sides

în: year (144 sun-years)


inc: guess, idea, notion

ingem: suffering from old-age, 'year-sick'

ínias: annals

inn: inner thought, meaning, heart

inw: female (for animals)

io: ago

iolf: brand

ionn: son

ior: course

ir: when, while

ist: lore, knowledge

istui: learned

ithildin: ‘star-moon’, a substance which reflected only starlight and moonlight.

Ithron, Ithryn: Wizard, member of the Heren Istarion

iûl: embers

iuith: use

lad: plain, valley

laden: wide

laer: song, tale

  • lairelossë: 'summer-snow-white', an ever-green tree brought to Númenor by the Eldar

lalaith: laughter

lalven, lelvin: elm-tree

lamír: necklace

lammen: tongue

lanc: bare, naked

lang: warm

lanthir: waterfall

lár: a league (nearly 3 miles)

las: leaf

laurin: golden

lebethron: a tree with very black wood

lein: free, freed

leithian: release, freeing

lembas: way-bread

len: journey

lhach: leaping flame

lhaeg: sharp, keen, acute

lhaes: babe

lhadon, lhedin: cleared, open

lhamb: tongue

lhanc: throat

lhand: wide, level, open space

lhang: cutlass, broad sword

lhant: clearing in forest

lhath: leather thong

lhathron: hearer, listener, eaves-dropper

lhaws: hair

lhebed: finger

lhegin: swift, rapid

lhend: tuneful, sweet

lhewig, lhaw: ears (of one person)

lhimp: wet

lhimb: fish

lhimlug: sea-serpent, 'fish-dragon'

lhîn: pool

lhoch: ringlet, lock of hair

lhoeg: fresh

lhong: heavy

lhonn: narrow path, strait, pass

lhoth: flower

lhû: a time, occasion

lhug: snake, serpent

lhûg: dragon

lhum: shade

lhumren: shady

lhûn: blue

lhunt: boat

lhûth: spell, charm

lhûthien: enchantress

lim: fast

lin: pool, mere

lith: ash, sand

lom: echo

lond: landlocked haven

lonn: path

loss: snow

lost: empty

mablung: heavy-handed

mae: well

maeg: sharp, piercing

mael: lust; stain

maelui: lustful

maen: skilled, clever

maenas: craft, handicraft, art

maer: useful, fit, good (of things)

maeth: battle, fight (of only a few individuals)

maethor: warrior

maew: gull, seagull

magol, megil: sword

magor: swordsman, warrior

maiga: pliant, soft

mâl, meil: pollen, yellow powder

malen, melin: yellow, golden in colour

mallorn, mellyrn: tree of Lothlórien

mallos: a golden flower of Lebennin

malt: gold (metal)

malthren: of gold, golden

malw: fallow, pale

man: what; who

mân: departed spirit, spirit of the dead

manadh: doom, final end, fate, final bliss

mar: land

marth: fate

maur: gloom

med: wet

megli: a bear, 'honey-eater'

meglin: bear-like

meglivorn: black bear

meidh: pale, fallow, fawn

melch: greedy

meldir: boy friend

meldis: girl friend

meleth: love

melethril: lover

melethron: lover

mell: dear

mellon, mellyn: friend

men: way, road

menel: the heavens

ment: point

meren: festive, gay, joyous

mereth: feast

mesg: wet

meth: end

methen: end

methed: last

mídh: dew

mîl: love, affection

milui: friendly, loving, kind

minas: tower

min: between

mindon: tower

minei: single, distinct, unique

minuial: dawn, first light

mír: jewel, precious thing, treasure

miruvor: the cordial of Imladris

mist: error, wandering

mistrad: straying, error

mith: grey, white fog, wet mist

mithril: true silver, or 'Moria Silver', this metal had more worth than gold, and was only to be found in Moria, and, before its downfall, in Númenor

moe: soft

moeas: dough

moed: handy, skilled

mor: dark, black (poetic and archaic)

morgul: the black arts

moru: black

moth: dusk

muil: drear, dreary

muin: dear

muindor, muindyr: brother

muinthel, muinthil: sister

mûl: slave, thrall

na: to

nâ: out

nad: thing

nadhor, nadhras: pasture

nadír: despair

nae: alas

naeg: pain

naer: dreadful

naeth: biting, gnashing of teeth, despair

naew: jaw

naith: gore, spear-head

nan: valley

nand: wide grassland

naneth: mother, nana: pet-name for mother

nâr: rat

nardh: knot

narn, nern: tale, saga

narw: red

nass: point, sharp end; angle, corner

nath: web

nathron: weaver, webster

naud: bound

Naug, Naugrim: dwarf (literally 'the Stunted People')

Naugol: dwarf (diminutive and insulting)

naur: flame

nauth: thought

naw, nui: idea

ne: in

nedhw: bolster, cushion

nêl, neleg: tooth

neldor: beech

nell: bell

nelladel: ringing of bells

nelthil: triangle

nemb: nose

nen, nîn: water

nend: watery

  • nessamelda: 'beloved of Nessa', a fragrant ever-green tree brought to Númenor by the Eldar

neth: young

nibin: petty

nîd: damp, wet

nienor: mourning

nîf: front, face

nimp: pole

nim: white

nimred: pallor

nín: tear

níniel: tearful

nínim: snow-drop

ninn: thin, fragile

ninniach: rainbow

niphred: pallor

niphredil: a white flower like a star which originated in Doriath the night Lúthien was born, it also grew in Lothlórien on Cerin Amroth (literally 'pale radiance')

nír: grief

nirnaeth: lamentation

nîth: youth

no: before

noediad: reckoning, count

noer: sad, lamentable

nogoth, noegyth: dwarf

noi: lament

nordh: cord

norn: twisted, knotted, crabbed, contorted

noss: clan, family, 'house'

nu: under

nû: noose, snare

nûd: bond

núr: sad

nûr: race; deep

o: from; about, concerning

odhron, odhril: parent

oel, oelin: pool, lake

oeg: sharp, piercing, pointed

oegas: montain peak

oeruil: sea-weed

ohtar: warrior, soldier

  • oiolairë: 'ever-summer', a fragrant ever-green tree brought to Númenor by the Eldar

ôl: dream

old: torrent, mountain stream

onnad: beginning

Onod, Enyd: the Ents

or: over, above

orch, yrch: orc

orchel: superior, lofty, eminent

orn, yrn: tree

orod, ered: mountain

ortheli: roof, screen above

orthelian: canopy

osp: reek, smoke

ost: fortress

othrad: street

othrod: fortress, city in underground caves

ovor: abundant

ovras: crowd, heap

palan: far, from afar

palath: surface

pân, pein: plank of wood, fixed board

panas: floor

pann: courtyard; wide

pant: full

parch: dry

parf, perf: book

parth: field, lawn, grassy place

path: smooth

pathred: fullness

pathw: level space, sward

paur: fist

paw: sickness

peich: juice, syrup

pel, peli: fenced field

pelthaes: pivot

pend: declivity

pendrad, pendraid: passage up or down a slope, stairway, ladder

peng: bow (for shooting)

pennas: history

penninar: last day of the year

pent: tale

perian, periannath (sometimes periain): hobbit

perin: half

pesseg: pillow

pethron: narrator

pichen: juicy

pigen: tiny

pin, pinnath: ridge

phelenn, philinn: arrow

pôd, pyd: animal's foot, paw

post: a stop, halt

prestannen: affected, changed

prestanneth: 'affection' of vowels

puig: clean, tidy, neat

rach, raich: wagon

râd: path, track

ram, rammas: wall

ranga: a Númenorean unit of measurement slightly longer than a yard, a pace

rant: course (of river, usually)

ras: horn

rath: course, river-bed; street

redda: sown field, acre

rhaen: crooked

rhaes: horn

rhaew: fathom

rhafu: wing, horn, extension at side

rhain: edge, border

rhanc, rhenc: arm

rhand: metal

rhandh: hollow, cavernous

rhandir: wanderer, pilgrim

rhann: errant

rhass: precipice

rhaug: demon

rhaw: wilderness; bank of a river

rhaw, rhui: lion

rhein: slot, spoor, track, footprint

rhemb: frequent, numerous

rhî: crown

rhîf: edge, border, hem

rhim: crowd (collective plural)

rhîn: crowned

rhinc: twitch, jerk, sudden move

rhing: cold

rhingorn: circle

rhinn: circle, circular

rhîs: queen

rhis: ravine

rhoeg: wrong

rhofal, rhofel: wing, pinion (eagle)

rhom: horn, trumpet

rhomru: sound of horns

rhón: body

rhond: cave

rhosc: brown

rhoss: rain

rhovanion: wilderland (also the region of

Mirkwood)

rhû: loud sound, trumpeting (poetic and archaic)

rhui: hunt, hunting

rhûn: east, sunrise

rhyn: hunting dog

ril: brilliance

rim: great number, host (commonly used to form plurals)

rín: remembrance

ring: cold, chill

roch, rych: the horse

rochon, rechyn: rider

rog: demon

rond: vaulted or arched roof, or a chamber with such a roof

roquen, roquin: knight

ros: foam, spray

rûdh: bald

ruin: red flame

rûth: anger

sadron, sedryn: the faithful

saer: bitter

saew: poison

salab, seleb: herb

salf: broth

samnar: diphtongs

sarch: grave

sarn: stone (as building material or adjective)

saw: juice

sein, sîn: new

sell: girl, maid (poetic and archaic)

sereg: blood

seregon: type of plant with blood-red flowers, hence its name, 'Blood of stone'

si: already, now

sîdh: peace

sigil: dagger

sîn: thus

siniath: news, tidings

sinnarn: novel tale

sir: river

sirith: flowing

solch: root (edible)

sûl: goblet

sûth: drought

tachol: pin, brooch

tadol: double

taen: long and thin

taes: nail

taew: holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple

talad: an incline, a slope

talaf: ground, floor

talagant: harper

talan, telain: elvish tree-house, flet

talath: flat land, plain

talt: slipping, falling, insecure

tanc: firm

tang: bowstring

tar-: stiff, obstinate, tough

tarag; horn (of animal); steep mountain path

tarlanc: stiff-necked

taro: king

tars: labour, task

tathar: willow

tathren: willowy

tavor: wood-pecker

taur: great wood, forest

taus: thatch

taw: wool, woollen

tawar: wood (as material)

tawaren, tewerin: wooden

te: line; way

tegol: pen (for writing)

teilien: sport, play

teith: mark (in writing)

telch, tilch: stem

tele, telei: end, rear, hindmost part

tellen: sole of foot

telu: dome, high roof

thafu: post, pillar

thalion, thelyn: strong, dauntless, steadfast; hero

tham: hall

thamas: great hall

thanc: cleft, forked

thang: oppression, tyranny

thangail: 'shield-fence', a defensive battle-formation used by the Dúnedain

thar: beyond

thâr: stiff grass

tharas: hassock, footstool

tharn: stiff, rigid, withered

thavron: carpenter, wright, builder

thaur: abominable, abhorrent

thaw: corrupt, rotten

thela: point of spear

thêl, thelei: sister

thenin: firm, true, abiding

thent: short

thin: grey, pale; evening (poetic and archaic)

thinna: evening

thinnas: shortness

thîr: look, face, expression, countenance

thlaew: sickly, ill

thle: spider's thread

thlein, thlîn: lean, meagre, thin

thling: spider's web, cobweb

thlinn: slender, fine

thliw: sickness

thloss: a whisper or rustling sound

thôl: helm, helmet

thôn, thonion: pine-tree

thond: root

thôr, thoron: eagle

thorod: torrent

thû: stench

thûl: breath

thurin: a secret

til: point, horn

tilion: horned (also a name; Tilion is the name of the Man in the Moon)

tim: spark

tinc: metal

tindumh: dusk, twilight, early night (moonless)

tint: spark

tinw: spark, small star

tîr: straight, right

tirith: watch, guard

tithen, tithin: little, tiny

tîw: letter (of the alphabet)

tó: that

tobas: roofing

tofu: lowlying, deep, low

tol, tyl: isle

tolog: stalwart, trusty

tond: tall

tong: taught (of strings)

torn, tyrn: down, small hill

toss: bush, low growing tree

trenarn: account, tale

trî: through (also as prefix)

trîw: fine, slender

trum: shield

tû: muscle, sinew; vigour; physical strength

tûg: fat, thick

tuilinn: swallow (bird), 'spring-singer'

tuin: those

tuiw: a sprout, bud

tulu: support, prop

tulus, tylys: poplar-tree

tum: deep valley

tump: hump

tund: hill, mound

tur: power, mastery, control

turo: master

ú- : negation

úan: monster

uanui: monstrous, hideous

ui: world-walls

ui-: twi-, both, two

uial: twilight

uil: trailing weeds

uir: eternity

uireb: eternal

ûl: odour

úlairi: the Ringwraiths

ulund: monster, deformed and hideous creature

ûn: creature

ungol: spider

ûr: fire

urun: copper

vad, vaid: path

  • vardarianna: fragrant ever-green tree brought to Númenor by the Eldar

vinya: new

wen: maiden

wing: foam, spray

  • yavannamírë: 'Jewel of Yavanna', an ever-green tree with scarlet flowers brought to Númenor by the Eldar


1 min 2 tad

3 neled

4 uitad

5 leben

6 eneg

7 odog

8 toloth

9 neder

10 caer 

11 minc

12 rasad

20 tachaen

30 nelchaen

40 canachaen

50 lebechaen

100 haran, herain

1000 meneg, menig

DialectsEdit

During the First Age there were several dialects of Sindarin:

With the exception of Doriathrin, the dialects were changed under Ñoldorin influence, and adopted many Quenya features. The distinct dialects disappeared after the Ñoldor and Sindar were dispersed during the later Battles of Beleriand. In the refuges on the Isle of Balar and the Mouths of Sirion a new dialect arose under the refugees, which mainly took after Falathrin. During the Second Age and Third Age Sindarin was a lingua franca for all Elves and their friends, until it was displaced as the Common tongue by Westron, a descendant of Adûnaic which was heavily influenced by Sindarin.

Sindarin is actually a Quenya term. The Sindarin word was perhaps Edhellen ("Elvish").

ReferenceEdit

See also Edit

Languages of Middle-earth, Quenya, Middle-earth

External linksEdit

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at Sindarin. The list of authors can be seen in that page's history. As with Tolkien Languages, the content of Wikipedia is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.

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